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Challenges and Opportunities in BIO
1. Usage of chemicals in Poultry and Aqua

There are several important concerns with regard to the use of chemicals in Poultry and as well as aquaculture. These include:

Human health concerns: Related to the use of feed additives, therapeutants, hormones, disinfectants and vaccines in Poultry and aquaculture.

Product quality concerns: Related to such issues as the occurrence of chemical residues in Poultry and aquaculture products, their use in the enhancement of product quality and in the preparation of value-added products.

Related to the need for consumer protection from hazardous usage, and issues surrounding consumer acceptance of the use of chemicals in the production of Table Chicken, Egg, fish and shellfish destined for human consumption.

Environmental concerns: Such as the effects of aquaculture chemicals on water and sediment quality (nutrient enrichment, loading with organic matter, etc.), natural aquatic communities (toxicity, disturbance of community structure and resultant impacts on biodiversity), and effects on microorganisms (alteration of microbial communities and the generation of drug resistant strains of bacteria).

The general lack of knowledge: Lack of Knowledge concerning the effects and fates of chemicals and their residues in cultured organisms and within the aquaculture system itself. Similarly, information is lacking on the actions and fate of chemicals used in aquaculture in the aquatic environment in general (impacts on non-cultured organisms, sediments and the water column).

The lack of knowledge on alternative means for chemical application: Development of highly specific targeted chemicals that have reduced side effects and environmental implicates is needed. The availability of affordable treatments suitable for aquaculture systems raising low-value species needs to be improved.

2. Major Challenges and Opportunities

There are three broad groups of people who deal directly with Poultry and Aquaculture chemicals:

1. Manufacturers and traders,
2. Farmers,
3. Consumers

Manufacturers and traders should work towards manufacturing and supplying appropriate species and systems- with out chemicals. They should facilitate availability through ensuring an adequate supply of such Organic products; should provide accurate and adequate information to farmers, and avoid illegal trade. The private sector should also conduct more research and development towards reducing the harmful impacts of chemicals in Poultry and Aquaculture systems, and should work to improve public awareness of the pros and cons of chemical use.

Farmers should work to understand the on-farm management of Organic additive product use in order to increase effectiveness and minimize adverse impacts. They should also inform themselves of the advantages of Organic additive use and disadvantages of chemical use in each specific situation.

Consumers should be aware of the health consequences of chemical misuse. They should inform themselves of the benefits, as well of the hazards, arising from chemical use, and should guard against undue influence by criticisms against Poultry and Aquaculture based mainly on emotional arguments that have little basis in scientific fact.

However, where evidence strongly indicates the need for constructive change within the Poultry and Aquaculture industry, consumers should support advocacy groups working towards this goal.

Policy makers, researchers, and scientists should work together in addressing the issues of chemical use and use of Organic additives, with the view to reduce the adverse impacts. More research is needed, and they should focus on providing answers to the problems related to the use of chemicals and advantage the use of Organic or Bio Additives.

3. Issues with Poultry

In poultry production intensive rearing practices have led to increased animal stress and disease. Respiratory diseases are one of the most common diseases in poultry. The disease occurs when birds are infected with disease causing bacteria and viruses. Subsequent invasion by secondary bacteria cause major damage to the birds. A frequent change in the environment too leads to building up of disease causing bacteria in the farm. Further these diseases can also lead to Immune suppression.

Disease conditions in general are controlled by the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Unfortunately, the extensive use of antibiotics and chemicals over a long period of time has resulted in the emergence of disease causing organism that have become resistant to such treatments.

World Health Organization has recommended the development of alternative and environmental friendly methods to control disease maintain productivity as well as ensure highest possible levels of animal health and welfare. It can be summarized that well maintained immune system could help the birds in effectively combating stress of any form.

4. Issues with Aquaculture

Managing immune system is one of the critical aspects of Shrimp Farming because the immune system in Shrimp is constantly challenged due to never ending stress and infectious pressure. The use of antimicrobial drugs have had limited success in combating disease problems and further shrimp growing countries have started insisting farmers not to use antibiotics, drugs and chemicals, which have the potential to harm human health and adversely impact the environment.

The efficient functioning of the digestive system is very important for the organization and activation of cells and enzymes involved in non-specific immune defenses. So a feed / feed additive is necessary for enhancing growth and to stimulate immunity of Shrimps and more importantly leaves no residue on biomass.


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